porcelain

Porcelain () is a ceramic material made by heating substances, generally including materials such as kaolinite, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C (2,200 and 2,600 °F). The strength, and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises mainly from vitrification and formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Though definitions vary, porcelain can be divided into three main categories: hard-paste, soft-paste and bone china. The category that an object belongs to depends on the composition of the paste used to make the body of the porcelain object and the firing conditions.
Porcelain slowly evolved in China and was finally achieved (depending on the definition used) at some point about 2,000 to 1,200 years ago, then slowly spread to other East Asian countries, then to Europe and eventually to the rest of the world. Its manufacturing process is more demanding than that for earthenware and stoneware, the two other main types of pottery, and it has usually been regarded as the most prestigious type of pottery for its delicacy, strength, and its white colour. It combines well with both glazes and paint, and can be modelled very well, allowing a huge range of decorative treatments in tableware, vessels and figurines. It also has many uses in technology and industry.
The European name, porcelain in English, comes from the old Italian porcellana (cowrie shell) because of its resemblance to the surface of the shell. Porcelain is also referred to as china or fine china in some English-speaking countries, as it was first seen in imports from China. Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability and elasticity; considerable strength, hardness, whiteness, translucency and resonance; and a high resistance to corrosive chemicals and thermal shock.

Porcelain has been described as being "completely vitrified, hard, impermeable (even before glazing), white or artificially coloured, translucent (except when of considerable thickness), and resonant". However, the term "porcelain" lacks a universal definition and has "been applied in an unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common".Traditionally, East Asia only classifies pottery into low-fired wares (earthenware) and high-fired wares (often translated as porcelain), the latter also including what Europeans call stoneware, which is high-fired but not generally white or translucent. Terms such as "proto-porcelain", "porcellaneous" or "near-porcelain" may be used in cases where the ceramic body approaches whiteness and translucency.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. A

    Adhesive What to use for 20mm porcelain onto level block paved patio

    hi im putting 600 x 600 porcelain tiles down onto solid block paving. the paving was sealed 2 years ago with resiblock . there a few little dips here and there no more then 3 mm. i was advised to use mapei ADESILEX P4. with a 10mm notched trowel . could some one please advise. thanks ian
  2. Copper7573

    Porcelain Tie Storage Question

    Hi everybody, I just received a delivery of my pallet of tiles. I have 2 days to inspect them for damage. Am I OK to unpackage them and stack them on top of each other or am I risking scratching them? Should I stack them front to back? What do you pros do? Thanks for entertaining my super noob...
  3. A

    What adhesive for 600x600 porcelain wall tiles

    Evening all, I've got a job coming up soon in a bathroom, wall to ceiling around the bath then half way on remaining walls. The tiles are 600x600 porcelain 9mm thick and the substrate is skimmed plaster board. I'm looking for advice on what adhesive to use, I usually use kerakoll biogel no...
  4. korkowa135

    Advice: Possible Fugabella product issue?

    Home owner here based in Surrey with a new Porcelain tiled patio. I need some advice about some grout discolouration. I had a new patio installed several months ago, and we have been struggling ever since the tiles were first laid down, with a recurring discolouration issue regarding the...
  5. H

    Non-slip tile products - recommendations please

    Hello. I have an ofuro or Japanese deep soaking bath in my ensuite. Think a mini indoor hot tub. It sits inside a square frame, and has 3 steps alongside which are used to get into and out of the bath. Something like this, but with 3 steps up on one side - on the outside. The surround and steps...
  6. B

    Outdoor porcelain lifting help

    Hi all, I had my patio done with porcelain paving a while ago and one of the slabs has a little movement on the corner, like there is a 1mm void underneath the slab, causing the grout to crack. Nearly all of the slab sounds completely bonded, it is just this corner that sounds hollow. Is...
  7. DcoltGaming

    How to fix porcelain tile chip?

    Hi all, I laid porcelain outside tile earlier (https://www.travisperkins.co.uk/gar...-outdoor-porcelain-tile-600x600x20mm/p/484571) but noticed a small chip on it. Is there any way to repair it to prevent me from taking it up and relay? # I was looking at something like...
  8. mahdimsa

    Where can I buy a good quality porcelain tile in dubai?

    I need help to buy porcelain tiles in dubai. Please refer me to reputable companies. Thnx
  9. J

    Porcelain Tile in my Garage

    I have been researching this for days and need some help. My garage has a concrete floor. I live in Sacramento (a Mediterranean climate) I ground my floor with a 70 grit grinder to get the epoxy applied 22 years ago and I now have a smooth and level surface with no cracks. I had the expansion...
  10. L

    Porcelain outside porcelain tiles

    Hi in after some advice had some Italian Porcelain in size 600×900 dark grey laid a couple of weeks ago they look stunning when wet but when they dry it seems to be a cloudy haze to them and there seems to be grout or mortar splashes any idea what is the best way to clean them without damaging...
  11. D

    porcelain patio tiles

    Hi laid my patio 2 years ago 20mm porcelain and used rompox to grout . Noticed in the winter after frosts it started breaking up . I have now angle grinded it all out which was a horrible job.My patio is beige so with 2 dogs very occasionally we would jet wash it which also did not help grout...
  12. J

    Patio sub base for porcelain tiles

    Good evening all, I am currently in the process of swapping out decking for a tiled patio. I plan on compacting MOT type 1 initially, followed by either: 1. Sand / cement mix and wet lay the tiles like slabs 2. Concrete slab poured, then tile directly onto the slab using suitable outdoor...
  13. W

    Extending current porcelain floor tile without door strip

    Afternoon all, I am purchasing a new build property and the builder has already laid 4500mm x 4500mm porcelain floor tiles through the entrance, hallway and kitchen. As part of the purchase we have agreed they will lay the same tiling in 3 additional ground floor rooms but they have stated they...
  14. M

    Adhesive for 600x300 porcelain tiles on plastered walls

    Hope someone can help Iam going to start a bathroom project Newbie at Tiling I've brough 10mm 600x300 Porcelain Tiles What adhesive and primer will I need to buy ?? They will be going onto a plastered Wall Thankyou
  15. B

    I'm Looking For This Tile LA BOBO PORCELAIN TILES 1200X600X4.8MM.

    Hi looking for a few tiles in light grey marble effect. Cheers
  16. W

    Required sub-base for laying porcelain tiles

    I live in Berkshire, UK, where the soil is clay. My current patio is block paved (laid about 20 years ago) but I am looking to have a porcelain tiled patio. My house is on clay soil and I have two large oak trees in my neighbouring garden. I find that during the summer, a gap opens up between...
  17. B

    Porcelain Patio laid in rain. Now Ungrouted.

    Hello Tilers, I'm seeking some expert advise here, I'm not a tiler myself nor a half good DIYer Have got a Patio Laid in Porcelain last week. However due to weather conditions the work has been slow as it has been raining intermittently sometimes heavy. The tiles have been...
  18. E

    Best manual cutter for porcelain

    Hi Peeps, I'm new to this site but been in the game a looooong time :) Looking to purchase a new manual cutter as the one I have is on its last legs. My question is whats the best manual cutter for porcelain tiles? Be good to hear your thoughts
  19. S

    I'm Looking For This Tile materie bc 30 12 x 12 porcelain floor tiles

    I am looking for materie BC 30 porcelain 12 x 12 tiles, Gres Ceramico Fine I beleive was maker or it could have been Leonardo Ceramica
  20. J

    Thin Porcelain Twelve cracked thin porcelain tiles 1500x1500

    Hello! We have an issue with 12 cracked large format thin porcelain tiles (1500x1500x6mm). They all have cracked in L cuts. The floor is made of concrete (they call it dry concrete or estrich over here). The tiles were laid 6 months after pouring the concrete in. It has underfloor heating that...
Top