porcelain

Porcelain () is a ceramic material made by heating substances, generally including materials such as kaolinite, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C (2,200 and 2,600 °F). The strength, and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises mainly from vitrification and formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Though definitions vary, porcelain can be divided into three main categories: hard-paste, soft-paste and bone china. The category that an object belongs to depends on the composition of the paste used to make the body of the porcelain object and the firing conditions.
Porcelain slowly evolved in China and was finally achieved (depending on the definition used) at some point about 2,000 to 1,200 years ago, then slowly spread to other East Asian countries, then to Europe and eventually to the rest of the world. Its manufacturing process is more demanding than that for earthenware and stoneware, the two other main types of pottery, and it has usually been regarded as the most prestigious type of pottery for its delicacy, strength, and its white colour. It combines well with both glazes and paint, and can be modelled very well, allowing a huge range of decorative treatments in tableware, vessels and figurines. It also has many uses in technology and industry.
The European name, porcelain in English, comes from the old Italian porcellana (cowrie shell) because of its resemblance to the surface of the shell. Porcelain is also referred to as china or fine china in some English-speaking countries, as it was first seen in imports from China. Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability and elasticity; considerable strength, hardness, whiteness, translucency and resonance; and a high resistance to corrosive chemicals and thermal shock.

Porcelain has been described as being "completely vitrified, hard, impermeable (even before glazing), white or artificially coloured, translucent (except when of considerable thickness), and resonant". However, the term "porcelain" lacks a universal definition and has "been applied in an unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common".Traditionally, East Asia only classifies pottery into low-fired wares (earthenware) and high-fired wares (often translated as porcelain), the latter also including what Europeans call stoneware, which is high-fired but not generally white or translucent. Terms such as "proto-porcelain", "porcellaneous" or "near-porcelain" may be used in cases where the ceramic body approaches whiteness and translucency.

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  1. V

    Lily Pad Porcelain Peacock tiles

    HELP! I'm really hoping someone might be able to give me some advice..... our cleaner just used Viakal on our lovely Lily Pad Porcelain Peacock tiles. I am Googling desperately but worried about causing more damage - some people suggest using baking soda and vinegar, others ice and then...
  2. S

    Thin Large format porcelain

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  3. L

    Are these porcelain or ceramic?

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  4. T

    Scratched porcelain floor tile

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  5. T

    Removing / hiding scratches in a high-glaze porcelain tile

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  6. B

    Scratched porcelain floor tile in shower

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    Thin Porcelain Laying porcelain pavers on fibreglass/concrete pool surround

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  8. korkowa135

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  9. T

    Laying 1st row of 60x60x20 porcelain slabs . Gap or No Gap!

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  10. T

    Porcelain Patio Advice

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  11. T

    Lay Outdoor Porcelain Patio

    Area _ Birmingham Yardley 16m2 porcelain 60cm x 60cm x20mm
  12. T

    Laying outdoor Porcelain 60cm x60cm

    Hello you Pro’s out there. I am embarking on replacing my current outdoor patio concrete slabs with Porcelain Slabs 60x60cm x 20mm I have been advised to do it 2 different ways so far. Is there a Right Way and a Wrong Way ? I have been advised to take up slabs, hardcore base, compact then lay...
  13. Slippery

    Porcelain laid on sand and cement?

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  14. J

    Porcelain slabs for patio

    Hi all. Just after a quick bit of advice. The other half wants porcelain slabs for the patio. It’s about 11sqm. I’ve watched lots of different YouTube videos. Doesn’t look to bad. Just couple questions from anyone that’s fitted them. 1) what’s the best way to cut them? I’ve got a 4” and 9”...
  15. A

    Porcelain Porcelain Rajah volcano tiles

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  16. D

    Loose Porcelain slabs outside

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    Porcelain Upstairs/2ND Story Durock 1/4 for Italian Porcelain Tile Florida home

    Hello, A recent property purchase as an investment in Florida. Home is 1-owner from new. I'm second owner. Mint condition home. No pets or kids. Just an older retired couple who originally bought it. I took out the upstairs carpet and orginal tile. Subflooring was mint. I decided to put 6x36...
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    Water UFH large floor area with 1200 x 230 porcelain tiles

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  19. B

    Help cleaning stubbornly stained Porcelain tile

    Hello Tilers! I am a homeowner in California and I thought I'd come say hi in search of a fresh perspective. I have some Porcelain tiles in my entryway which seem stained and I'm having quite a time to try cleaning them. So far, I've had a professional cleaner have a go at it then I've...
  20. C

    Porcelain manual cutter technique

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