porcelain

Porcelain () is a ceramic material made by heating substances, generally including materials such as kaolinite, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C (2,200 and 2,600 °F). The strength, and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises mainly from vitrification and formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Though definitions vary, porcelain can be divided into three main categories: hard-paste, soft-paste and bone china. The category that an object belongs to depends on the composition of the paste used to make the body of the porcelain object and the firing conditions.
Porcelain slowly evolved in China and was finally achieved (depending on the definition used) at some point about 2,000 to 1,200 years ago, then slowly spread to other East Asian countries, then to Europe and eventually to the rest of the world. Its manufacturing process is more demanding than that for earthenware and stoneware, the two other main types of pottery, and it has usually been regarded as the most prestigious type of pottery for its delicacy, strength, and its white colour. It combines well with both glazes and paint, and can be modelled very well, allowing a huge range of decorative treatments in tableware, vessels and figurines. It also has many uses in technology and industry.
The European name, porcelain in English, comes from the old Italian porcellana (cowrie shell) because of its resemblance to the surface of the shell. Porcelain is also referred to as china or fine china in some English-speaking countries, as it was first seen in imports from China. Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability and elasticity; considerable strength, hardness, whiteness, translucency and resonance; and a high resistance to corrosive chemicals and thermal shock.

Porcelain has been described as being "completely vitrified, hard, impermeable (even before glazing), white or artificially coloured, translucent (except when of considerable thickness), and resonant". However, the term "porcelain" lacks a universal definition and has "been applied in an unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common".Traditionally, East Asia only classifies pottery into low-fired wares (earthenware) and high-fired wares (often translated as porcelain), the latter also including what Europeans call stoneware, which is high-fired but not generally white or translucent. Terms such as "proto-porcelain", "porcellaneous" or "near-porcelain" may be used in cases where the ceramic body approaches whiteness and translucency.

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    Porcelain outside porcelain tiles

    Hi in after some advice had some Italian Porcelain in size 600×900 dark grey laid a couple of weeks ago they look stunning when wet but when they dry it seems to be a cloudy haze to them and there seems to be grout or mortar splashes any idea what is the best way to clean them without damaging...
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    porcelain patio tiles

    Hi laid my patio 2 years ago 20mm porcelain and used rompox to grout . Noticed in the winter after frosts it started breaking up . I have now angle grinded it all out which was a horrible job.My patio is beige so with 2 dogs very occasionally we would jet wash it which also did not help grout...
  3. J

    Patio sub base for porcelain tiles

    Good evening all, I am currently in the process of swapping out decking for a tiled patio. I plan on compacting MOT type 1 initially, followed by either: 1. Sand / cement mix and wet lay the tiles like slabs 2. Concrete slab poured, then tile directly onto the slab using suitable outdoor...
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    Extending current porcelain floor tile without door strip

    Afternoon all, I am purchasing a new build property and the builder has already laid 4500mm x 4500mm porcelain floor tiles through the entrance, hallway and kitchen. As part of the purchase we have agreed they will lay the same tiling in 3 additional ground floor rooms but they have stated they...
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    Adhesive for 600x300 porcelain tiles on plastered walls

    Hope someone can help Iam going to start a bathroom project Newbie at Tiling I've brough 10mm 600x300 Porcelain Tiles What adhesive and primer will I need to buy ?? They will be going onto a plastered Wall Thankyou
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    I'm Looking For This Tile LA BOBO PORCELAIN TILES 1200X600X4.8MM.

    Hi looking for a few tiles in light grey marble effect. Cheers
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    Required sub-base for laying porcelain tiles

    I live in Berkshire, UK, where the soil is clay. My current patio is block paved (laid about 20 years ago) but I am looking to have a porcelain tiled patio. My house is on clay soil and I have two large oak trees in my neighbouring garden. I find that during the summer, a gap opens up between...
  8. B

    Porcelain Patio laid in rain. Now Ungrouted.

    Hello Tilers, I'm seeking some expert advise here, I'm not a tiler myself nor a half good DIYer Have got a Patio Laid in Porcelain last week. However due to weather conditions the work has been slow as it has been raining intermittently sometimes heavy. The tiles have been...
  9. E

    Best manual cutter for porcelain

    Hi Peeps, I'm new to this site but been in the game a looooong time :) Looking to purchase a new manual cutter as the one I have is on its last legs. My question is whats the best manual cutter for porcelain tiles? Be good to hear your thoughts
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    I'm Looking For This Tile materie bc 30 12 x 12 porcelain floor tiles

    I am looking for materie BC 30 porcelain 12 x 12 tiles, Gres Ceramico Fine I beleive was maker or it could have been Leonardo Ceramica
  11. J

    Thin Porcelain Twelve cracked thin porcelain tiles 1500x1500

    Hello! We have an issue with 12 cracked large format thin porcelain tiles (1500x1500x6mm). They all have cracked in L cuts. The floor is made of concrete (they call it dry concrete or estrich over here). The tiles were laid 6 months after pouring the concrete in. It has underfloor heating that...
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    Advice on porcelain cracked tiles please

    Had wet system UFH installed on a concrete subfloor to the whole ground floor ie living room, kitchen and hallway (40 sqm). UFH Panels were laid down that contain grooves for the UFH pipes to sit in. The plumber used an adhesive to fix down. It was then latexed over using around 3 mm thickness...
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    Porcelain tiles wet room Ufh heating

    Hi guys A little advice if possible I have a bathroom 2.6 x1.9 on joists 18” gaps New weyroc floor Ufh is on spreader plates in between and a wet board flush into the area So my question is decoupling mat or not ? For this size area is it needed Will there be that much flex? There have been...
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    I'm Looking For This Tile White polished porcelain

    White polished porcelain floor tile sold by Homebase in 2015, 300 x 600 mm
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    Porcelain tiled kitchen floor - cracking after 2 days

    Hi all, Just after a bit of advice please. I had my kitchen floor tiled last week (porcelain tiles). I think there is movement and cracking/crumbling grout in some of the tiles. I supplied the tiles and the grout. The tiler supplied everything else including the adhesive. I think he’s used the...
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    Porcelain Porcelain - oudoor, adhesive and levelling system

    I plan to lay a circa 8m x 4m patio using a concrete slab and fixing with tile adhesive. The porcelain tiles will be 1200 x 600 or 900 x 450, I want to use a half bond with the longest edge parallel to the 8m length of the slab. I'm looking for recomendations on adhesive and a levelling system...
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    Setting Out Expansion/movement joints - porcelain on a concrete slab

    I plan to lay a circa 8m x 4m patio using a concrete slab and fixing with tile adhesive. The porcelain tiles will be 1200 x 600 or 900 x 450, I want to use a half bond with the longest edge parallel to the 8m length of the slab. The slab will need at least one expansion/movement joint which will...
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    6mm Porcelain Tile Slabs

    Hi Everyone, I know 6mm porcelain tile slabs are great for walls but has anyone had any experience with them as bathroom flooring? Would you recommend this new trend of thinner porcelain tile slab to customers as floor tiles as well? I know 12mm slabs for flooring is sufficient but never heard...
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    Porcelain 12 mm Thick porcelain tiles price?

    Hi What's the going rate for tiling 12mm thick porcelain tiles measuring 120cm X 120cm going directly onto dura base matting concrete floor
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    1200X600X12 porcelain cutting and general advice

    Im going to be tiling my shower room walls and floor with some large format tiles as per the title. Having only used 600X300 on mt Kitchen an downstairs bathroom I dont think my 40 quid plasplugs wet saw will be up to this job! (In actual fact I have cut porcelain tiles with it before, but...
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