Porcelain () is a ceramic material made by heating substances, generally including materials such as kaolinite, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C (2,200 and 2,600 °F). The strength, and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises mainly from vitrification and formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Though definitions vary, porcelain can be divided into three main categories: hard-paste, soft-paste and bone china. The category that an object belongs to depends on the composition of the paste used to make the body of the porcelain object and the firing conditions.
Porcelain slowly evolved in China and was finally achieved (depending on the definition used) at some point about 2,000 to 1,200 years ago, then slowly spread to other East Asian countries, then to Europe and eventually to the rest of the world. Its manufacturing process is more demanding than that for earthenware and stoneware, the two other main types of pottery, and it has usually been regarded as the most prestigious type of pottery for its delicacy, strength, and its white colour. It combines well with both glazes and paint, and can be modelled very well, allowing a huge range of decorative treatments in tableware, vessels and figurines. It also has many uses in technology and industry.
The European name, porcelain in English, comes from the old Italian porcellana (cowrie shell) because of its resemblance to the surface of the shell. Porcelain is also referred to as china or fine china in some English-speaking countries, as it was first seen in imports from China. Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability and elasticity; considerable strength, hardness, whiteness, translucency and resonance; and a high resistance to corrosive chemicals and thermal shock.

Porcelain has been described as being "completely vitrified, hard, impermeable (even before glazing), white or artificially coloured, translucent (except when of considerable thickness), and resonant". However, the term "porcelain" lacks a universal definition and has "been applied in an unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common".Traditionally, East Asia only classifies pottery into low-fired wares (earthenware) and high-fired wares (often translated as porcelain), the latter also including what Europeans call stoneware, which is high-fired but not generally white or translucent. Terms such as "proto-porcelain", "porcellaneous" or "near-porcelain" may be used in cases where the ceramic body approaches whiteness and translucency.

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  1. L

    Porcelain outside porcelain tiles

    Hi in after some advice had some Italian Porcelain in size 600×900 dark grey laid a couple of weeks ago they look stunning when wet but when they dry it seems to be a cloudy haze to them and there seems to be grout or mortar splashes any idea what is the best way to clean them without damaging...
  2. D

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  3. J

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  4. W

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  5. M

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  6. B

    I'm Looking For This Tile LA BOBO PORCELAIN TILES 1200X600X4.8MM.

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    Required sub-base for laying porcelain tiles

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  8. B

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  9. E

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  10. S

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  11. J

    Thin Porcelain Twelve cracked thin porcelain tiles 1500x1500

    Hello! We have an issue with 12 cracked large format thin porcelain tiles (1500x1500x6mm). They all have cracked in L cuts. The floor is made of concrete (they call it dry concrete or estrich over here). The tiles were laid 6 months after pouring the concrete in. It has underfloor heating that...
  12. T

    Advice on porcelain cracked tiles please

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  13. J

    Porcelain tiles wet room Ufh heating

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    Porcelain tiled kitchen floor - cracking after 2 days

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  16. J

    Porcelain Porcelain - oudoor, adhesive and levelling system

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  17. J

    Setting Out Expansion/movement joints - porcelain on a concrete slab

    I plan to lay a circa 8m x 4m patio using a concrete slab and fixing with tile adhesive. The porcelain tiles will be 1200 x 600 or 900 x 450, I want to use a half bond with the longest edge parallel to the 8m length of the slab. The slab will need at least one expansion/movement joint which will...
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    6mm Porcelain Tile Slabs

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    Porcelain 12 mm Thick porcelain tiles price?

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  20. S

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